问答题 Practice 3 In-state tuition. For decades, it was the one advantage big state schools had that even the Ivy League couldn’t match, in terms of recruiting the best and the brightest to their campuses. But these days, that’s no longer necessarily the case. Starting this September, some students will find a Harvard degree cheaper than one from many public universities. Harvard officials sent shock waves through academia last December by detailing a new financial-aid policy that will charge families making up to $180,000 just 10 % of their household income per year, substantially subsidizing the annual cost of more than $ 45,600 for all but its wealthiest students. The move was just the latest in what has amounted to a financial-aid bidding war in recent years among the U. S.’s élite universities. Though Harvard’s is the most generous to date, Princeton, Yale and Stanford have all launched similar plans to cap tuition contributions for students from low-and middle-income families. Indeed, students on financial aid at nearly every Ivy stand a good chance of graduating debt-free, thanks to loan-elimination programs introduced over the past five years. And other exclusive schools have followed their lead by replacing loans with grants and work-study aid. And several more schools are joining the no-loan club this fall. Even more schools have taken steps to reduce debt among their neediest students.
问答题 Practice 3 Dolly was no ordinary lamb. She was cloned from a single mammary cell of an adult ewe, overturning long- held scientific dogma that had declared such a thing biologically impossible. Her birth set off a race in laboratories around the world to duplicate the breakthrough and raised the specter of human cloning. A decade later, scientists are starting to come to grips with just how different Dolly was. Dozens of animals have been cloned since that first little lamb and it’s becoming increasingly clear that they are all, in one way or another, defective. It’s tempting to think of clones as perfect carbon copies of the original—down to every hair and quirk of temperament. It turns out, though, that there are various degrees of genetic replication. Not only are clones separated from the original template by time—-in Dolly’s case, six years—but they are also the product of an unnatural molecular mechanism that turns out not to be very good at making identical copies. But scientists see a role for cloning in treating human diseases—and perhaps someday conquering some of man’s most intractable conditions. It may be another 10 years or more before the approach yields anything safe and reliable enough to be used in real patients, and there is no guarantee that it will ever be successful. But nobody thought Dolly was possible until she made history that warm July night 10 years ago.
问答题 Practice 3 Einstein was one of the intellectual heroes of history, and such heroes, like Newton and like Darwin, are always twofold — rebels in their work and heretics in society. He prized the integrity of man's personality more highly than man's science. Back in the 1920's he said, in some desultory interview, that two discoveries might destroy mankind: atomic energy and universal thought-reading. The wry prophecy sums up Einstein's passions. He saw deeply into nature, her promise and her threat, but he was not too abstracted to remember .the fallibility of men. For him the key to the world lay in the minds of men. He fought for freedom of the mind from his rebellious school-days and the manifesto of 1914 to his dying day. In his last years he spoke out constantly against the inquisition which then darkened America. But even his love for science and for freedom was not abstract. These were for him the high places of the human mind, and he lived those; he loved people. His richness of sympathy made him a symbol to an age. It carried his ideas beyond their scientific setting so that, more profoundly than the work of any philosopher, they changed the outlook of philosophy. All his ideas grew from one conception: that the world is not given to us absolutely, but is something which we actively observe and thereby shape. For Einstein was a practical thinker; to him, truth was that which is experienced in action. When he died, on April 18, 1955, Einstein had created a new empiricism, as revolutionary and as lasting as that with which Galileo laid the foundation of science.
问答题 Practice 2 President Bill Clinton's My Wife shows US the progress of a remarkable American, who, through his own enormous energies and efforts, made the unlikely journey from Hope, Arkansas, to the White House—a journey fueled by an impassioned interest in the political process which manifested itself at every stage of his life：in college, working as an intern for Senator William Fulbright; at Oxford, becoming part of the Vietnam War protest movement；at Yale Law School, campaigning on the grassroots level for Democratic candidates；back in Arkansas, running for Congress, attorney general, and governor. We see his career shaped by his resolute determination to improve the life of his fellow citizens, all unfaltering commitment to civil rights, and an exceptional Understanding of the practicalities of political life. We come to understand the emotional pressures of his youth—born after his Father's death；caught in the dysfunctional relationship between his feisty, nurturing mother and his abusive stepfather, whom he never ceased to love and whose name he took；drawn to the brilliant, compelling Hillary Rodham, whom he was determined to marry；passionately devoted, from her infancy, to their daughter, Chelsea, and to the entire。Experience of fatherhood; slowly and painfully beginning to comprehend how his early denial of pain led him at times into damaging patterns of behavior.
问答题 Practice 1 Modern intolerance, like ancient Gaul, is divided into three parts; the intolerance of laziness, the intolerance of ignorance and the intolerance of self-interest. The first of these is perhaps the most general. It is to be met with in every country and among all classes of society. It is most common is small villages and old-established towns, and it is not restricted to human beings. It is this particular variety of intolerance which makes parents shake their heads over the foolish behavior of their children, which has caused the absurd myth of “the good old days”; which makes savages and civilized creatures wear uncomfortable clothes; which fills the world with a great deal of superfluous nonsense and generally turns all people with a new idea into the supposed enemies of mankind. The second variety is much more, serious. An ignorant man is, by the very fact of his ignorance, a very dangerous person. But when he tries to invent an accuse for his own lack of mental faculties, he becomes a holy terror. For then he erects within his soul a granite bulwark of self-righteousness and from the high pinnacle of this formidable fortress, he defies all his enemies to show cause why they should be allowed to live. There remains as a third category the intolerance caused by self-interest. (Hendrik Willem Van Loon: Tolerance)
问答题 Practice 3 So let us mark this day with remembrance, of who we are and how far we have traveled. In the year of America’s birth, in the coldest of months, a small band of patriots huddled by dying campfires on the shores of an icy river. The capital was abandoned. The enemy was advancing. The snow was stained with blood. At a moment when the outcome of our revolution was most in doubt, the father of our nation ordered these words be read to the people: “Let it be told to the future world… that in the depth of winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive… that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to meet [it].” America. In the face of our common dangers, in this winter of our hardship, let us remember these timeless words. With hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come. Let it be said by our children’s children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God’s grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations. (Barack Obama: Inaugural Address)
问答题 Practice 1 The catchphrase of the hour is that America is living beyond its means. The expression is used so much by politicians, economists and editorial writers that it is depreciating faster than the dollar. But there's no way around it. It tells the story. The Data Resources numbers show Americans increase their spending this year almost three times as fast as their after-tax income. What else can we explain it? What is more, as a nation, the U.S. has been doing the same thing throughout the 1990s. For years the country has been consuming more than it produces, making up the difference by borrowing abroad. It can't go on. The stock market's tumble, which has caused a loss of $1 trillion in paper wealth, is but the first step in a process that must sober the nation. At the same time, in the next few years the U. S. will have to throw its amazing dream machine into reverse and start paying its debts. Inevitably, this will mean a lowering in the U.S. standard of living as Americans are forced to produce more than they consume to service a soaring foreign debt. Per capital income may keep rising but more slowly than in the past. The trade account will go slowly towards balance or even surplus in the mid-1990s. But in the meantime, Americans will receive less for their exports because the dollar will fall considerably before U. S. exports are competitive. And pressures to reduce the federal deficit will tighten the lid on defense spending.
问答题 Practice 5 We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that they are among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among them, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience has shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than the right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity, which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. (Thomas Jefferso: The Declaration o f Independence)
问答题 Practice 7 That we are in the midst of crisis is now well understood. Our nation is at war, against a far- reaching network of violence and hatred. Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some, but also our collective failure to make hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age. Homes have been lost; jobs shed; businesses shuttered. Our healthcare is too costly; our schools fail too many; and each day brings further evidence that the ways we use energy strengthen our adversaries and threaten our planet. On this day, we gather because we have chosen hope over fear, unity of purpose over conflict and discord. On this day, we come to proclaim an end to the petty grievances and false promises, the recriminations and worn out dogmas, that for far too long have strangled our politics. This is the journey we continue today. We remain the most prosperous, powerful nation on Earth. Our workers are no less productive than when this crisis began. Our minds are no less inventive, our goods and services no less needed than they were last week or last month or last year. Our capacity remains undiminished. But our time of standing pat, of protecting narrow interests and putting off unpleasant decisions - that time has surely passed. Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of remaking America. (Barack Obama: Inaugural Address)
问答题 Practice 3 What today’s global market economy teaches many of us who are involved in political life, is that even when they are inconvenient, the laws of economics, like the laws of physics, cannot be repealed for the convenience of governments. The economic principles for national success are as difficult to implement as they are easy to state. There is a paradox in all our countries at this moment. Just as a new global economy creates more to look forward to than ever before, it also brings more uncertainty and more change to worry about than ever before. That is why the challenge of crafting economic policy in your country as in mine is one of balance. A balance between moving toward necessary objectives and maintaining stability. A balance between responding to global realities and upholding domestic traditions. And a balance between the virtues of competition as the best known motivator and driver of success, and the importance of cohesion and cooperation as sources of strength for our societies. These balances will have to be struck and calibrated every year in every country in this new global economy. These measures are what one might call the intangible infrastructure of a modern market economy.