• 题王微信公众号


学历语言类 | 考研公共课

单选题 What can we learn from the second paragraph?

A financed Franny Armstrong to make her new movie.


Franny Armstrong hopes to attend the Sundance Film Festival.


People who gave 20 quids ($35) can get a ticket to watch the film.


All those who financed the film will get a percentage of the profits.

单选题 What do campaigners who lobby to preserve languages do to save endangered languages?


Take measures to slow down languages’ vanishing rate.


Try to make known languages’ accelerating vanishing rate.


Try all their out to record and reconstruct the vanishing languages.


Slow down languages’ vanishing rate and meanwhile make it known.

问答题 They were, by far, the largest and most distant objects that scientists had ever detected: a strip of enormous cosmic clouds some 15 billion light years from earth. 1) But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.That was just about the moment that the universe was born. What the researchers found was at once both amazing and expected; the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Cosmic Background Explorer satellite—Cobe—had discovered landmark evidence that the universe did in fact begin with the primeval explosion that has become known as the Big Bang (the theory that the universe originated in an explosion from a single mass of energy).  2) The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang, first put forward in the 1920s, to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos.According the theory, the universe burst into being as a submicroscopic, unimaginable dense knot of pure energy that flew outward in all directions, emitting radiation as it went, condensing into particles and then into atoms of gas. Over billions of years, the gas was compressed by gravity into galaxies, stars, plants and eventually, even humans.  Cobe is designed to see just the biggest structures, but astronomers would like to see much smaller hot spots as well, the seeds of local objects like clusters and superclusters of galaxies. They shouldn’t have long to wait. 3) Astrophysicists working with ground based detectors at the South Pole and balloon borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report their findings soon.  4) If the small hot spots look as expected, that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea, a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary universe theory.Inflation says that very early on, the universe expanded in size by more than a trillion fold in much less than a second, propelled by a sort of antigravity. 5) Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary particle physics, and many astrophysicists have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true.

问答题 1)The original insight that people could be classified into Type A and Type B personalities and that Type A’s were more heart-attack prone1 grew out of research at the Framingham Heart Study laboratories in the late 1970s.  Dr. Peter Wilson, director of the Framingham laboratories, agreed in a telephone interview last week that since the early studies, the AB issue has been getting weaker. 2)A large prospective study2 (in which people are followed for years before years before they get sick) last year showed the A-B behavior distinction was not associated with coronary artery disease.Now researchers are thinking in terms of “anger in” vs. “anger out” as the latest area of concern.  Behavioral epidemiologist Elaine Eaker at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in Bethesda, one of the nation’s foremost scholars of correlations between behavior and heart disease, agrees in principle.  “There is no epidemiological evidence on hostility alone, but anger has been linked to CHD (coronary heart disease) events weakly for white collar men and more strongly for women in clerical jobs,” she said last week.  “The Type A concept is still viable because it has been a predictor of heart disease in at least two long-term studies. But recent research has shown that how you cope with anger may be the new coronary prone behavior of the future. And it’s tough to cope with anger,” she added.  3)Since holding anger inside may lead to heart trouble and since acting it out by having temper tantrums is highly antisocial, Eaker says researchers now advocate maturely “discussing” anger—either with the person who makes you angry or with a friend—as the most constructive method of dealing with explosive feelings.  4)Since the early Type A studies, researchers have been attempting to fine-tune the ways in which they can identify a person as Type A or Type B, not an easy task since people often deny or are actually unaware of some facets of their personalities and hence can not be asked point-blank if they are angry or impatient by nature .  Dimsdale used both pencil-and-paper questionnaires and a “semi-structured” interview technique to identify Type A personalities among heart patients.  In the interviews, he explained, “you ask questions slowly and sometimes even in a stammer and then see how rapidly the person will finish the sentence for you.” People who rush to answer are usually highly impatient and impatience has long been considered a major component of Type A behavior.  5)Yet, no matter whether he used the self-report questionnaires or the more subtle interview technique, people identified as The A’s did not fare worse than the others.

问答题 1) The hierarchy of needs is an idea associated with one man, Abraham Maslow, the most influential humanist ever to have worked in industry.It is a theory about the way in which people are motivated. 2) The theory arose out of a sense that classic economics was not giving managers much help because it failed to take into account the complexity of human motivation. Maslow divided needs into five:  · Physiological needs: hunger, thirst, sex and sleep. Food and drinks manufacturers operate to satisfy needs in this area, as do prostitutes and tobacco growers.  · Safety needs: job security, protection from harm and the avoidance of risk. At this level an individual’s thoughts turn to insurance, burglar alarms and savings deposits.  · Social needs: the affection of family and friendship. These are satisfied by such things as weddings, sophisticated restaurants and telecommunications.  · Esteem needs (also called ego needs), divided into internal needs, such as self-respect and sense of achievement, and external needs, such as status and recognition. Industries focused on this level include the sports industry and activity holidays.  · Self-actualization, famously described by Maslow: “A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately happy. What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-actualization.” Self-actualization is different from the other levels of need in at least one important respect: it is never finished, never fully satisfied. 3)It is, as Shakespeare put it, “as if increase of appetite grows by what it feeds on”.  An individual’s position in the hierarchy is constantly shifting and any single act may satisfy needs at different levels. Thus having a drink at a bar with a friend may be satisfying both a thirst and a need for friendship (levels one and three). Single industries can be aimed at satisfying needs at different levels. For example, a hotel may provide food to satisfy level one, a nearby restaurant to satisfy level three, and special weekend tours of interesting sites to satisfy level five.  The hierarchy is not absolute. It is affected by the general environment in which the individual lives. The extent to which social needs are met in the workplace, for instance, varies according to culture. 4) In Japan the corporate organization is an important source of a man’s sense of belonging (although not of a woman’s); in the West it is much less so.One of Maslow’s early disciples was a Californian company called NLS (Non-Linear Systems). In the early 1960s it dismantled its assembly line and replaced it with production teams of six or seven workers in order to increase their motivation. 5) Each team was responsible for the entire production process, and they worked in areas that they decorated according to their own taste. A host of other innovations (such as dispensing with time cards) revolutionized the company. Profits and productivity soared, but Maslow remained skeptical. He worried that his ideas were being too easily “taken as gospel truth, without any real examination of their reliability”.(此文选自The Economist 2008年刊)

1 2 3 4 5 下一页 尾页 /