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学历语言类 | 考研公共课

问答题 Human beings in all times and places think about their world and wonder at their place in it. Humans are thoughtful and creative, possessed of insatiable curiosity.1) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies.Therefore, it is important to study humans in all their richness and diversity in a calm and systematic manner, with the hope that the knowledge resulting from such studies can lead humans to a more harmonious way of living with themselves and with all other life forms on this planet Earth.   “Anthropology” derives from the Greek words anthropos “human” and logos “the study of.” By its very name, anthropology encompasses the study of all humankind. Anthropology is one of the social sciences.2) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.   Social science disciplines include geography, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology. Each of these social sciences has a subfield or specialization which lies particularly close to anthropology.   All the social sciences focus upon the study of humanity. Anthropology is a field-study oriented discipline which makes extensive use of the comparative method in analysis.3)The emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science.   Anthropological analyses rest heavily upon the concept of culture. Sir Edward Tylor’s formulation of the concept of culture was one of the great intellectual achievements of 19th century science. 4) Tylor defined culture as “… that complex whole which includes belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”This insight, so profound in its simplicity, opened up an entirely new way of perceiving and understanding human life. Implicit within Tylor’s definition is the concept that culture is learned, shared, and patterned behavior.   5) Thus, the anthropological concept of “culture,” like the concept of “set” in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.

问答题 Putin will finish the second of two terms as President in 2008. Under his leadership, Russia has re-emerged as a significant world power. 1) I have friends who predict that Vladimir Putin will find his new position as Russian prime minister a comedown after eight years as President.I doubt it. Putin is more likely to define his job than be defined by it. After our first meetings, in 1999 and 2000, I described him in my journal as “shrewd, confident, hard-working, patriotic, and ingratiating.” In the years since, he has become more confident and—to Westerners—decidedly less ingratiating.   Born in Leningrad (today’s St. Petersburg) Putin is the son of a sailor and a factory worker. From 1976 to 1990, Putin served in the foreign intelligence branch of the notorious Soviet spy agency. For many of those years, he was stationed in Germany. In 1998, Putin was tapped to run the FSB (successor to the KGB) by then Russian President Boris Yeltsin. 2) When Yeltsin resigned shortly before the end of his second term, Putin was chosen to serve as acting President, putting him in an ideal position to win the office in the election that followed. 3) Some believe Putin’s KGB background explains everything, but his allegiance to the KGB is in turn explained by his intense nationalism—which accounts for his popularity in Russia.Timing matters in history, and Putin has had the benefit of high oil prices and the contrast with his predecessor, Boris Yeltsin. 4) His vision of Russia is that of a great power in the old-fashioned European sense. Such powers have spheres of influence and subjugate lesser powers. At home, they celebrate national traditions and prize collective glory, not individual freedom.   Tolstoy described the 19th century count Mikhail Speransky as a “rigorous-minded man of immense intelligence, who through his energy...had come to power and used it solely for the good of Russia.” What one found disconcerting, though, “was Speransky’s cold, mirror-like gaze, which let no one penetrate to his soul.” It is possible to love the idea of a nation without caring too much for its citizens.   5) It is unlikely that Putin, 55, will wear out his welcome at home anytime soon, as he has nearly done with many democracies abroad.In the meantime, he will remain an irritant to nato, a source of division within Europe and yet another reason for the West to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels.

单选题 In listening to a person the important thing is ______.


to notice his tone, his posture, and the look in his eye


to listen to how he pronounces his words


to check his words against his manner, his tone of voice, and his posture


not to believe what he says

问答题 The Oscar is a mere 8-pound, 13 and 1/2-inch statue, coated in layers of copper, silver and 24-karat gold. 1)But it reduces, in that split second when the envelope opens and the world holds its collective breath, even the most respectful celebrity to be an unwilling comedian.   The early ceremonies, in the late 1920s, were held in private. Explaining why they were so low-key, Cary Grant remarked that there is something embarrassing about all these wealthy people congratulating each other. But by 1933, the stage was set for well-dressed celebrities to trip over their own egos. 2) It makes you wonder what .Louis B. Mayer and other founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences would say if they, could see what became of the organization they started to further the welfare and protect the honor and good repute of the profession,or so the charter says..   3) But even among the people in the business, there are those who are happy to have their award, even if some mistake sentences them to a lifetime of teasing, and others who probably wish they were home watching the four-hour celebrity get-together on TV, like the rest of us.   4) Director Frank Capra was so certain he would win that he began to rise before Will Rogers finished announcing the winner. He kept saying, “Over here, over here!” because the spotlight was thrown on the other side of the room and he wanted to enjoy his triumph. Capra was even more confused on his way to the Stage when Rogers said, “Come on up and get it, Frank.”   It turned out that the winner was another Frank, Frank Lloyd for Cavalcade. Capra called his return to his seat the longest, saddest, and most shattering walk in his life. Countless others have taken that Oscar night walk of embarrassment. And there are even more funny, if not embarrassing, incidences. Think about Jack Palance dropping to the stage floor and doing one-armed pushups, to celebrate this Best Supporting Actor award or City Slickers?   In 1947, Ronald Reagan narrated a silent montage of past Oscar winners. 5) Much to Reagan's surprise, the crowd was laughing hysterically as he said, “This picture embodies the glories of our past, the memories of our present and the inspiration of our future ”What he didn't know: the reel was upside down.   And comedian Marry Feldman probably was trying too hard to be funny. Presenting the 1976 Oscar, he called the two winning producers to the stage, then threw the statue to the floor, handed a piece of the award to each one. He said, “It said 'made in Hong Kong’ on the bottom.”

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