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问答题 There is one passage in this section with 5 statements. Go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on the Answer Sheet.  For questions 1-5, mark  Y (for YES)      if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;  N (for NO)      if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;  NG (for NOT GIVEN)  if the information is not given in the passage.  When was the last time you saw a frog? Chances are, if you live in a city, you have not seen one for some time. Even in wet areas once teeming with frogs and toads, it is becoming less and less easy to find those slimy, hopping and sometimes poisonous members of the animal kingdom. All over the world, even in remote jungles on the far side of the globe, frogs are losing the ecological battle for survival, and biologists are at a loss to explain their demise. Are amphibians simply over-sensitive to changes in the ecosystem? Could their rapid decline in numbers be signalling some coming environmental disaster for us all?  This frightening scenario is in part the consequence of a dramatic increase over the last quarter of a century in the development of once natural areas of wet marshland: home not only to frogs but to all manner of wildlife. Yet, there are no obvious reasons why certain frog species are disappearing from rainforests in the Southern Hemisphere which are barely touched by human hands. The mystery is unsettling to say the least, for it is known that amphibian species are extremely sensitive to environmental variations in temperature and moisture levels. The danger is that planet Earth might not only lose a vital link in the ecological food chain (frogs keep populations of otherwise pestilent insects at manageable levels), but we might be increasing our output of air pollutants to levels that may have already become irreversible. Frogs could be inadvertently warning us of a catastrophe.  An example of a bizarre occurrence regarding a species of frog dates from the summer of 1995, when “an explosion” of multi-coloured frogs of the species Rana klepton esculenta occurred in the Netherlands. Normally these frogs are brown and greenish-brown, but some unknown contributory factor is turning these frogs yellow and / or orange. Nonetheless, so far, the unusual bi- and even tri-coloured frogs are functioning similarly to their normal-skinned contemporaries. It is thought that frogs with lighter coloured skins might be more likely to survive in an increasingly warm climate due to global warming.  One theory put forward to explain extinct amphibian species that seems to fit the facts concerns the depletion of the ozone layer, a well-documented phenomenon which has led to a sharp increase in ultraviolet radiation levels. The ozone layer is meant to shield the Earth from UV rays, but increased radiation may be having a greater effect upon frog populations than previously believed. Another theory is that worldwide temperature increases are upsetting the breeding cycles of frogs.  Statements:  1.Biologists are unable to explain why frogs are dying out.  2.Attempts are being made to halt the development of wet marshland.  3.Frogs are important in the ecosystem because they control pests.  4.It is not known why Dutch frogs are changing colour.  5.It is a fact that frogs’ breeding cycle has been upset by worldwide increases in temperature.

问答题 Britain’s car industry may be showing down but British engineers can still build the world’s fastest car. (1)____(construct) work begins today on a car that engineers hope will break the land speed record (2)____ more than 200 mph.  The car, Bloodhound, is designed to travel faster than 1,000 mph(1,600km/h)—far in (3) ex____ of the speed of sound and the equivalent of crossing four football pitches every second. The record of 763 mph was (4) s____ in 1997 by the Royal Air Force pilot Andy Green, who will also drive Bloodhound.  The time trial is (5) sch____ for 2011 and will take place in desert in the Northern Cape of South Africa.  The car’s pencil-shape shell is made from (6)____(forge) aerospace-grade aluminum.  Three engines lie under the bonnet: a 400 kg Euro-fighter Typhoon jet engine, a rocket and a third engine to pump fuel through to the rocket. This combination should produce 135,000 horsepower—(7) eq____ to the power of 180 Formula One cars.  Wing Commander Green, 46, will lie feet—first in Bloodhound. As the car (8)____ (acceleration) to 1,050 mph in 40 seconds he will experience a force of 2.5 G, or about twice his body weight, As he decelerates and experiences forces of up to 3G, the blood will drain from his head to his feet and he could black out. He will prepare (9)____ the trial by flying upside down in a stunt aircraft. “A huge advantage is (10)____ I’ve got 20 years’ experience of flying fast jets,” he said.

问答题 Look at the topic headings below, marked A, B, C, D E, and F, and match them with the paragraphs in the text below. There is one extra heading which you don’t need to use.  Questions 1-5 are based on the following passage.  A. The presumptions of policy makers  B. The impact of dual employment  C. The benefits of balanced responsibility  D. The unchanged role of the female parent  E. The experts’ view of the male parent’s role  F. Origins of anxiety in working mothersPARENTING AND RESPONSIBILITY  There are still significant gaps between women and men in terms of their involvement in family life, the tasks they perform and the responsibilities they take. Yet, at least in developed Western countries, both women and men express a desire for greater equality in family life. It is evident that in terms of attitudes and beliefs, the problem cannot simply be thought of in terms of women wanting men to share more equally and men being reluctant to do so. The challenge now is to develop policies and practices based on a presumption of shared responsibility between men and women, and a presumption that there are potential benefits for men and women, as well as for families and the community, if there is greater gender equality in the responsibilities and pleasures of family life. These are becoming key concerns of researchers, policy makers, community workers and, more importantly, family members themselves.    Despite the significant increase in the number of women with dependent children who are in the paid workforce, Australian research studies over the last 15 years are consistent in showing that divisions of labor for family work are very rigid indeed (Watson 1991). In terms of time, women perform approximately 90 percent of child care tasks and 70 percent of all family work, and only 14 percent of fathers are highly participant in terms of time spent on family work (Russell 1983). Demo and Acock (1993), in a recent US study, also found that women continue to perform a constant and major proportion of household labor (68 percent to 95 percent) across all family types (first marriage, divorced, step-family or never married), regardless of whether they are employed or non-employed in paid work.    Divisions of labor for family work are particularly problematic in families in which both parents are employed outside the home (dual-worker families). Employed mothers adjust their jobs and personal lives to accommodate family commitments more than employed fathers do. Mothers are less likely to work overtime and are more likely to take time off work to attend to children’s needs (Vanden Heuvel 1993). Mothers spend less time on personal leisure activities than their partners, a factor that often leads to resentment (Demo and Acock 1993).    The parental role is central to the stress-related anxiety reported by employed mothers, and a major contributor to such stress is their taking a greater role in child care (Vanden Heuvel 1993). Edgar and Glezer (1992) found that close to 90 percent of both husbands and wives agreed that the man should share equally in child care, yet 55 percent of husbands and wives claimed that the men actually did this. (These claims are despite the findings mentioned earlier that point to a much lower participation rate by fathers.) A mother’s wanting her partner to do more housework and child care is a better predictor of poor family adjustment than is actual time spent by fathers in these tasks (Demo and Acock 1993). It is this desire, together with its lack of fulfillment in most families, that bring about stress in the female parent.    Family therapists and social work researchers are increasingly defining family problems in terms of a lack of involvement and support from fathers and are concerned with difficulties involved in having fathers take responsibility for the solution of family and child behavior problems (Edgar and Glezer 1986). Yet, a father accepting responsibility for behavior problems is linked with positive outcomes.    Research studies lend strong support to the argument that there are benefits for families considering a change to a fairer or more equitable division of the pleasures and pains of family life. Greater equality in the performance of family work is associated with lower levels of family stress and higher self-esteem, better health, and higher marital satisfaction for mothers. There is also higher marital satisfaction for fathers, especially when they take more responsibility for the needs of their children—fathers are happier when they are more involved (Russell 1984).

问答题 One of the questions coming into focus as we face growing scarcity of resources in the world is how to divide limited resources among countries. In the international development (1) com____, the coronal wisdom has been that the billion people living in poor countries could never expect to (2) r____ the standard of living that most of the people in North America enjoy, simply because the world does not contain enough iron ore, protein, petroleum, and so on. At the same time, we in the United States have continued to pursue super-affluence as though there were no limits (3)____ how much we could consume. We (4) m____ only 6 percent of the world’s people; yet we consume one third of the world’s resources.  As long as the resources we consumed each year came primarily from (5) w____ our own boundaries, this was largely an internal matter. But as our resources come more and more from the outside world, we will no longer be able to think in (6)____ of “our” resources and “their” resources, but only of (7) c____ resources.  As Americans consume such a(n) (8)____(proportion) share of the world’s resources, we have to question whether or not we can continue our pursuit of super-affluence in a world of (9)____(scarce). We are now reaching the point at which we must carefully examine the presumed link between our level of well-being and the level of material goods consumed. If you have only one crust of bread and get another crust of bread, your well-being is greatly enhanced. But if you have a loaf of bread, then an additional crust of bread doesn’t make (10) d____. In the eyes of most of the world today, Americans have their loaf of bread and are asking for still more. The prospect of a scarcity of, and competition in, the world’s resources requires that we re-examine the way in which we relate to the rest of the world.

问答题 Given the choice between spending an evening with friends and taking extra time for his schoolwork, Andy Klise admits he would probably opt for the latter. It's not that he doesn't like to have fun; it's just that his desire to excel academically drives his decision-making process.  A 2001 graduate of Wooster High School and now a senior biology (1) m____ at The College of Wooster, Klise acknowledges that he may someday have second thoughts about his decision to limit the time he has spent (2)____ (social), but for now, he is comfortable (3)____ the choices he has made. “If things had not worked out as well as they have, I would have had some regrets,” says Klise, (4)____ was a Phi Beta Kappa inductee as a junior. “But spending the extra time studying has been w ell worth the (5)____ (invest). I realized early on that to be successful, I had to make certain (6) sa____.”  As for the origin of his intense motivation, Klise notes that it has been part of his makeup for as long as he can remember. “I've always been goal (7)____,” he says. “This internal drive has caused me to give my all in pretty much everything I do.”  Klise credits Wooster's nationally recognized Independent Study (I.S.) program with preparing him for his next step in life; a research position with the National Institute of Health (NIH). “I am hoping that my I.S. experience will help me (8) l____ a research position with NIH,” says Klise. “The yearlong program gives students a chance to work with some of the nation's (9)____(lead) scientists while making the (10) tr____ from undergraduate to graduate studies or a career in the medical field.”

问答题 This book is about the future of technology. In it we will examine some of the many recent developments in a few key fields and try, in a limited way, to predict where they will take us in the next fifteen years or (1)____.  If that sounds like a modest goal, it’s not. Technology is the (2)____(dominate) force of our time and probably of all time to come. It appears in more varieties than we can count. It changes so rapidly (3)____ no scientist or engineer can keep up with his own field, much less with technology in general. It permeates and shapes our lives at every turn. We live in technology (4)____ fish live in the sea, and we have only a little better chance of (5) f____ the details of its future changes.  Yet the task is well worth undertaking. Whatever hints we can glean (一点点搜集) about the future win help us prepare for the changes to come. Modest forecasts, evidence of trends, a few concrete developments to be expected all are better than no warning at all. And (6) th____ technology has made the present much less stable than the past, and surely will make the future more disturbed still, there is good reason to hope that our lives, in sum and on average, will be better as a result. In an age of uncomfortable (7) ch____, this is reassurance(保证) we all can use.  For an idea of what is to come—in magnitude if not in (8) sp____—look to the past. In the last ninety years, the world has shrunk, while human experience has advanced almost beyond the recognition of these who grew up in our grandparent’s generation.A century after America’s (9)____(found) conceived their agrarian (耕地的) democracy, nearly all their descendents still lived on fanning. Since World War I, technology has extracted us from behind horse-drawn plows and plugged us into (10) as____ lines and offices. Today it is removing many of us from offices and letting us work at home or forcing us to work on the road.

问答题 In the early 1950s the researchers who produced the first clad glass optical fibers were not thinking of using them for communications. (1) H____, fiber optics was already a well-established commercial technology when the famous paper by Kao and Hockham, (2)____(claim) the use of low-loss optical fibers for communication, appeared in 1966.  The first low-loss silica fiber was described in (3)____ which appeared in October of 1970. The date of this publication is sometimes (4)____(cite) as the beginning of the era of fiber communication. Although this development did receive (5)____(consider) attention in the research community at the time, it was far from inevitable that a major industry would evolve.  The technological barriers appeared formidable because there were serious doubts as to (6) wh_____ these fiber components could ever be produced economically enough, but the market potential was very significant. (7)____(consequence), research and development activity expanded rapidly, and a number of important issues were (8) re_____ during the early 1970s. During the middle and late 1970s,the rate of progress towards marketable products accelerated as the emphasis (9)____(shift) from research to engineering. Fibers with losses (10) app____ the Rayleigh limit of 2 dB/km at a wavelength of 0.8μm were produced.  By 1980 improvement in component performance, cost, and reliability led to major commitments on the part of telephone companies.

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