问答题 Directions:In this part there are one passage with five questions. Read the passage carefully, then answer the questions in the fewest possible words (not exceeding 10 words). Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage: Centuries ago, man discovered that removing moisture from food helps to preserve it, and that the easiest way to do this is to expose the food to sun and wind. In this way the North American Indians produce pemmican (dried meat ground into powder and made into cakes), the Scandinavians make stockfish and the Arabs dry dates and “apricot leather”.All foods contain water—cabbage and other leaf vegetables contain as much as 93% water, potatoes and other root vegetables 80%, lean meat 75% and fish anything from 80% to 60% depending on how fatty it is. If this water is removed, the activity of the bacteria which cause food to go bad is checked. Fruit is sun-dried in Asia Minor, Greece, Spain and other Mediterranean countries, and also in California, South Africa and Australia. The methods used vary, but in general, the fruit is spread out on trays in drying yards in the hot sun. In order to prevent darkening, pears, peaches and apricots are exposed to the fumes of burning sulphur before drying. Plums, for making prunes, and certain varieties of grapes for making raisins and currants, are dipped in an alkaline solution in order to crack the skins of the fruit slightly and remove their wax coating, so increasing the rate of drying. Nowadays most foods are dried mechanically. The conventional method of such dehydration is to put food in chambers through which hot air is blown at temperatures of about 110℃ at entry to about 43℃ at exit. This is the usual method for drying such things as vegetables, minced meat, and fish. Liquids such as milk, coffee, tea, soups and eggs may be dried by pouring them over a heated horizontal steel cylinder or by spraying them into a chamber through which a current of hot air passes. In the first case, the dried material is scraped off the roller as a thin film which is then broken up into small, though still relatively coarse flakes. In the second process it falls to the bottom of the chamber as a fine powder. Where recognizable pieces of meat and vegetables are required, as in soup, the ingredients are dried separately and then mixed. Dried foods take up less room and weigh less than the same food packed in cans or frozen, and they do not need to be stored in special conditions. For these reasons they are invaluable to climbers, explorers and soldiers in battle, who have little storage space. They are also popular with housewives because it takes so little time to cook them. Usually it is just a case of replacing the dried-out moisture with boiling water. Questions: 1．What makes food go bad according to the passage? 2．What does the word “dehydration” in Para. 4 refer to? 3．Housewives like dried foods because______. 4．What kind of treatment do pears and plums go through in the drying process? 5．Where are vegetables most commonly dried nowadays?
问答题 Directions:In this section, there is one passage followed by a summary. Read the passage carefully and complete the summary below by choosing a maximum of three words from the passage to fill in the spaces 76-80. Remember to write the answers on the Answer Sheet. Questions 1-5 are based on the following passage. Headaches are a big problem. But they are not just a problem for the person suffering from the headache. They are a problem for society as well. Each year, millions of people suffer from severe headaches that keep them from doing their jobs. In fact, according to one estimate, headaches cost individuals and businesses more than $50 billion each year! This is one of the reasons research into headaches has become a worldwide effort. Although he did not know much about how headaches work, Hippocrates was the first doctor to find a way to treat them. Before 400 B.C., Hippocrates discovered that the bark from willow trees was useful in treating pain. He made a white powder from the tree’s bark and gave it to his patients. Hippocrates did not know it, but he was actually prescribing a natural chemical in willow bark called salicin. When a person eats salicin, the chemical is changed inside her or his body into salicylic acid. It turns out that salicylic acid is good for stopping pain, including headache, but it is bad for a person’s stomach. In the 1800s, a chemist in Germany changed the acid’s form a little to make it easier for people to take. This new form of the chemical was called acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin today. Aspirin was used throughout most of the 1900s to treat headaches, but doctors had little idea about what really caused headaches. When doctors know the cause of a disease, they can find better ways to treat it. Therefore, as medical technology developed, doctors began to use the technology to learn more about the human brain and about headaches. Currently, doctors classify headaches into two general types: primary and secondary. A primary headache is a condition suffered as only the headache itself. On the other hand, a secondary headache is one caused by another condition. For example, someone who catches the flu may suffer from headaches along with other symptoms of the illness. Flu headaches are thus secondary headaches. For primary headaches, doctors have determined three possible causes. One kind of primary headache is caused by stress. Doctors usually call these tension headaches. Such headaches are characteristically felt on both sides of the head as a dull, steady pain.Another kind of primary headache is the migraine headache. Doctors believe these headaches are caused by reduced flow of blood to certain parts of the brain. A migraine sufferer usually feels intense pain on one side of the head. The sufferer also becomes sensitive to light and noise. If the migraine is severe, the sufferer may vomit repeatedly. The third kind of primary headache is known as the cluster headache. Cluster headaches typically occur around the same time each day for weeks or months at a time. The person suffering from this kind of headache usually feels pain on one side of her or his head, and the pain is centered around one of the person’s eyes. Doctors do not know much at present about cluster headaches, but they seem more common among men and could be related to alcohol or other things that affect a person’s blood flow. Using computers and more advanced medical equipment, doctors continue to learn more about what happens in the brain before and during headaches. Especially in the case of migraines, some doctors believe they have found the part of the brain that sets off the reaction for severe attacks. With this new insight into brain processes, doctors hope new ways will be discovered for stopping disabling headaches before they begin. Summary: Doctors knew a long time ago that the 1 from the willow trees could help people who felt pain. Hippocrates was the first doctor to change organic material into a powder and give it to his patients. But it was not until the 1800s that this natural drug was altered and became known as 2 . With the help of technology, doctors have now gained detailed insight into how the brain works and what happens when a person suffers from a headache. Through this research, headaches have been 3 primary and secondary headaches. There are three types of primary headaches: tension, migraine, and cluster headaches. Although not much is known about cluster headaches, doctors have been able to determine some of the things that 4 During a migraine attack, the sufferer may become 5 and noise.
问答题 Section C(10 marks) In this section, there is one passage followed by 5 questions. Read the passage carefully, and then answer the questions in a maximum of 10 words. Remember to write the answers on the Answer Sheet.Pavarotti Dies Aged 71 The Italian opera star Luciano Pavarotti died at his home in Modena, aged 71. The tenor, who helped take opera to a new mass audience, had been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer last year and had further treatment in August 2007. His manager, Terri Robson, said Pavarotti died at 5 am on September 6. ‘The maestro fought a long, tough battle against the pancreatic cancer which eventually took his life. Characteristically, he remained positive until finally succumbing to the last stages of his illness,’ Mr. Robson said in a statement. Pavarotti was considered by some critics to have been the greatest tenor since Enrico Caruso. He made his professional debut in 1961, as Rodolfo in Puccini’s La Bohemeat the opera house in Reggio Emilia. His most celebrated performance came at New York’s Metropolitan Opera House, where he hit nine high Cs in Donizetti’s La fille du regiment. But Pavarotti reached a new global audience during the 1990 football World Cup, when his interpretation of the Puccini aria Nessun Dormawas chosen as the tournament’s theme tune. It became an international hit. Later, Essential Pavarotti became the first classical album to reach number 1 in the UK charts. The 1990 World Cup was also the venue of the first of the hugely popular Three Tenor concerts that Pavarotti performed with Placido Domingo and Jose Carreras. His most high-profile performance in Britain was the Pavarotti in the Park concert, in a rain-sodden Hyde Park in 1991. His friend, Diana, Princess of Wales, was in the front row. Like many opera stars, Pavarotti also had a reputation for being demanding. At a Royal Variety performance in Edinburgh, he reportedly demanded a fully fitted kitchen to be built into his hotel suite. He also frequently cancelled concerts at short notice. But he also raised millions of pounds for good causes around the world in a number of charity performances. Domingo led the tributes to his fellow tenor. ‘I always admired the God-given glory of his voice,’ he said. ‘I also loved his wonderful sense of humor and on several occasions during our concerts with Jose Carreras we had trouble remembering that we were giving a concert before a paying audience, because we had so much fun between ourselves.’ The British tenor Russell Watson told GMTV that Pavarotti was ‘without question’ the man who brought opera to the people. “The World Cup was the Three Tenors led by Pavarotti, with a very entertaining version of Nessun Dorma. In fact, it’s now called ‘Pavarotti’s Nesson Dorma’,” Watson said. ‘His voice was so distinctive you only needed to listen to a couple of bars and you knew it was him, he had incredible power and control.’ QUESTIONS: 1．What was the cause of Pavarotti’s death? 2．Where did Pavarotti first perform professionally? 3．Who were The Three Tenors? 4．How did Pavarotti raise money for good causes? 5．Which piece of operatic music do people usually associate with Pavarotti?
问答题 Flu and How Not to Catch It This winter, in offices and workplaces throughout the country, people are at risk of becoming a health danger to their colleagues. These are the people who, carrying flu viruses, have dragged themselves in to work in (1) sp____ of the high temperature, headache, sore throat and cough they are (2) su____ from. Most experts agree that people with flu ought to stay at home, certainly in the case of those (3)____ jobs involve public safety-airline pilots, air traffic (4)____(control) and train drivers. A diet rich in (5) ve____ and fruit and regular exercise may help people avoid the illness. Experts are (6)____(doubt) whether taking lots of vitamin C will (7)____ any difference, but reducing stress levels may help. Basic hygiene is certainly important, as well, especially in the office. We know that the illness can be passed on (8) f____ cups and saucers, so do more than simply rinse them under the tap with all the others. Wash them properly with hot water and use disinfectants to clean surfaces. Remember to wash your hands (9) reg____ and don’t touch your face, as flu enters the body through the eyes, nose and mouth. Other tips on prevention include (10)____ rid of cloth handkerchiefs, which provide a home for germs. Change to paper tissues and throw them away afterwards.
问答题 Directions:There is one passage in this section with 5 statements. Go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on the Answer Sheet. For questions 1 - 5, mark Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage; N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage; NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage. You hear the same complaint all the time as people get older: “My memory is terrible.” Is it all in the mind, or do real changes take place in the brain with age to justify such grumbling (抱怨)? The depressing answer is that the brain’s cells, the neurons, die and decline in efficiency with age. Professor Arthur Shimamura, of the University of California at Berkeley, says there are three main ways in which mental function changes. The first is mental speed, for example how quickly you can react to fast-moving incidents on the road. Drivers in their late teens react quickly but tend to drive too fast, while the over sixties are more cautious but react more slowly. The near-inevitable slowing with age also partly explains why soccer players are seen as old in their thirties, while golf professionals are still in their prime at that age. This type of mental slowing results from a reduction in the efficiency with which the brain’s neurons work. The fact that adults find it harder to learn musical instruments than children points to a second type of mental loss with age—a reduction in learning capacity. The parts of the brain known as the temporal lobes control new learning, and are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. This means that, as we get older, we take longer to learn a new language, and slower to master new routines and technologies at work, and we have to rely more on diaries and other mental aids. “Working memory” is the third brain system which is vulnerable to the effects of aging. Working memory is the brain’s “blackboard”, where we juggle from moment to moment the things we have to keep in mind when solving problems, planning tasks and generally organizing our day-to-day life. Absent-mindedness occurs at all ages because of imperfections in the working memory system—so, for instance, you may continually lose your glasses, or find yourself walking into a room of your house only to find that you cannot remember what you came for. Such absent-mindedness tends to creep up on us as we age and occurs because our plans and intentions, which are chalked up on the mental blackboard, are easily wiped out by stray thoughts and other distractions. Stress and preoccupation can also cause such absent-mindedness, in addition to age-related changes in the brain. The frontal lobes of the brain—located behind the forehead and above the eyes—are where the working memory system is located. Like the temporal lobes, which handle new learning, the frontal lobes are more vulnerable to the aging process than other parts of the brain. The news, however, is not all bleak. Although neurons reduce in number with age, the remaining neurons send out new and longer connection fibers (dendrites) to maintain connections and allow us to function reasonably well with only relatively small drops in ability. This and other evidence suggests that the principle “use it or lost it” might apply to the aging brain. Professor Shimamura studied a group of university professors who were still intellectually active, and compared their performance on neuropsychological tests with that of others of their age group, as well as with younger people. He found that on several tests of memory, the mentally active professors in their sixties and early seventies were superior to their contemporaries, and as good as the younger people. Research on animals provide even stronger evidence of the effects of stimulation on the brain structure. Professor Bryan Kolb, of the University of Lethbridge in Canada, has shown that animals kept in stimulating environments show sprouting (生长) and lengthening of the connecting nerve fibers in comparison with animals kept in unstimulating environments. The beneficial effects of continued mental activity are shown by the fact that older contestants in quiz shows are just as fast and accurate in responding to general knowledge questions as younger competitors, suggesting that at least part of their intellectual apparatus is spared the effects of aging because of practice and skill. Such findings lead to the intriguing possibility of “mental fitness training” to accompany jogging and workouts for the health conscious. Research in Stockholm by Professor Lars Backman and his colleague has shown that older people can be trained to use their memory better, with the effects of this training lasting several years. Just as people go bald or grey at different rates, so the same is true for their mental faculties. Why this should be the case for memory and other mental functions is not yet clear. If Professor Shimamura is right, then the degree to which people use and stretch their mental faculties may also have a role to play. Statements: 1．The passage gives a description of several methods of testing mental ability. 2．Professor Shimamura identified a number of areas in which mental function may change. 3．As the temporal lobes of the brain are affected by aging, it becomes harder to pick up new skills. 4．Research indicates that physical training can help to improve memory. 5．Taking part in quizzes is the best way to stimulate the brain.
问答题 Directions:In this section, there is one passage followed by a summary. Read the passage carefully and complete the summary below by choosing no more than three words from the passage. Remember to write the answers on the Answer Sheet. Questions 1-5 are based on the following passage.The City of the Future What will city life be like in the future? Some people think that life in the cities is going to be horrible. They predict that cities will become more and more crowded. As the number of people increases, there will be less space for each person. This overcrowding will cause other problems—more crime, dirtier streets, and worse problems with traffic than we have now. How will people find enough drinking water, energy (such as gas and electricity), and housing? Because life will be hard, people who live in cities will worry more, and they may become sick. For these reasons, some say that nobody will want to live in urban areas. How can we solve such problems as overcrowding, crime, and traffic? In some cities, thousands of people are already sleeping in the streets because there is so little suitable housing—and because rents are so high. The crime rate isn’t going down. Instead, it is increasing so fast that many people are afraid to go out at night. Traffic is also getting worse. More and more often, traffic jams are so bad that cars don’t move at all for several blocks. These urban problems have been getting worse, not better, so many people see no hope for the future of the city. Los Angeles, California, for instance, has no subway system and the buses are slow. Instead, most commuters drive many miles from their homes to work. Many of these drivers spend several hours each day on busy freeways. New York, by contrast, has a mass transit system—buses, commuter trains, and subways. Because the public transportation is crowded and dirty, however, many people drive private cars, and the traffic jams are worse than in Los Angeles. On the other hand, some cities have clean, fast, and pleasant public transportation systems. In Paris, France, and Toronto, Canada, for example, anyone can use mass transit to move quickly from one part of the city to another. The disadvantages of any modern city are not unique to that city—that is, cities all over the world have to solve the problems of traffic jams, crime, housing, energy, drinking water, and overcrowding. Yet many cities have found answers to one or more of these difficulties. Some European cities, such as Stockholm, Sweden, or London, England, have planned communities that provide people with apartments, jobs, shopping centers, green space, entertainment, and transportation. Many U.S. cities are rebuilding their downtown areas. Urban planners can learn from one another. They can try solutions that have been successful in other parts of the world. Summary: Some people think that life in the cities is going to be horrible. They say that cities will become more and more crowded and many other problems will be caused by this 1 Due to the hard life, people do not want to live in 2 These urban problems such as overcrowding, crime and traffic have been getting worse, so many people 3 for the future of the city. However, these disadvantages of any modern city are not unique to that city. All the cities all over the world must solve the problems and fortunately, many of them have found answers to one or more of these difficulties. For example, 4 or London has planned communities providing people with apartments, jobs and so on. Besides, many U. S. cities 5 In a word, solutions that have been successful in a place should be adopted and tried in another place.
问答题 Britain’s car industry may be showing down but British engineers can still build the world’s fastest car. (1)____(construct) work begins today on a car that engineers hope will break the land speed record (2)____ more than 200 mph. The car, Bloodhound, is designed to travel faster than 1,000 mph(1,600km/h)—far in (3) ex____ of the speed of sound and the equivalent of crossing four football pitches every second. The record of 763 mph was (4) s____ in 1997 by the Royal Air Force pilot Andy Green, who will also drive Bloodhound. The time trial is (5) sch____ for 2011 and will take place in desert in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The car’s pencil-shape shell is made from (6)____(forge) aerospace-grade aluminum. Three engines lie under the bonnet: a 400 kg Euro-fighter Typhoon jet engine, a rocket and a third engine to pump fuel through to the rocket. This combination should produce 135,000 horsepower—(7) eq____ to the power of 180 Formula One cars. Wing Commander Green, 46, will lie feet—first in Bloodhound. As the car (8)____ (acceleration) to 1,050 mph in 40 seconds he will experience a force of 2.5 G, or about twice his body weight, As he decelerates and experiences forces of up to 3G, the blood will drain from his head to his feet and he could black out. He will prepare (9)____ the trial by flying upside down in a stunt aircraft. “A huge advantage is (10)____ I’ve got 20 years’ experience of flying fast jets,” he said.
问答题 Given the choice between spending an evening with friends and taking extra time for his schoolwork, Andy Klise admits he would probably opt for the latter. It's not that he doesn't like to have fun; it's just that his desire to excel academically drives his decision-making process. A 2001 graduate of Wooster High School and now a senior biology (1) m____ at The College of Wooster, Klise acknowledges that he may someday have second thoughts about his decision to limit the time he has spent (2)____ (social), but for now, he is comfortable (3)____ the choices he has made. “If things had not worked out as well as they have, I would have had some regrets,” says Klise, (4)____ was a Phi Beta Kappa inductee as a junior. “But spending the extra time studying has been w ell worth the (5)____ (invest). I realized early on that to be successful, I had to make certain (6) sa____.” As for the origin of his intense motivation, Klise notes that it has been part of his makeup for as long as he can remember. “I've always been goal (7)____,” he says. “This internal drive has caused me to give my all in pretty much everything I do.” Klise credits Wooster's nationally recognized Independent Study (I.S.) program with preparing him for his next step in life; a research position with the National Institute of Health (NIH). “I am hoping that my I.S. experience will help me (8) l____ a research position with NIH,” says Klise. “The yearlong program gives students a chance to work with some of the nation's (9)____(lead) scientists while making the (10) tr____ from undergraduate to graduate studies or a career in the medical field.”
问答题 February 14 is Valentine’s Day. Although it is celebrated as a lovers’ holiday today, with rite giving of candy, flowers, or other gifts between couples in love, it originated in 5th Century Rome as a respect (1)____ St. Valentine, a Catholic bishop. For eight hundred years before the (2)____(establish) of Valentine’s Day, the Romans had (3) pr____ a pagan(异教徒) celebration in mid-February honoring young men’s ceremony of passage to the god Lupercus. The celebration was characterized by lottery in (4)____ young men would draw the names of (5) teen ____ girls from a box. The girl given to each young man in this way would be his companion the rest of the year. In an effort to do away with such a (6) f____, Pope Gelasius ordered a slight change in the lottery. Instead of the names of young women, the box would contain the names of saints. (7)____ the men and women were allowed to draw from the box, and the game was to (8) imi____ the ways of the saint they drew during the rest of rite year. However, many young Roman men were not too pleased (9)____ the copying. Instead of the pagan god Lupercus, the Church looked for a suitable saint of love to take his (10) p____. They found an appropriate choice in Valentine, who, in AD 270 had been killed by Enter Claudius.
问答题 In the early 1950s the researchers who produced the first clad glass optical fibers were not thinking of using them for communications. (1) H____, fiber optics was already a well-established commercial technology when the famous paper by Kao and Hockham, (2)____(claim) the use of low-loss optical fibers for communication, appeared in 1966. The first low-loss silica fiber was described in (3)____ which appeared in October of 1970. The date of this publication is sometimes (4)____(cite) as the beginning of the era of fiber communication. Although this development did receive (5)____(consider) attention in the research community at the time, it was far from inevitable that a major industry would evolve. The technological barriers appeared formidable because there were serious doubts as to (6) wh_____ these fiber components could ever be produced economically enough, but the market potential was very significant. (7)____(consequence), research and development activity expanded rapidly, and a number of important issues were (8) re_____ during the early 1970s. During the middle and late 1970s，the rate of progress towards marketable products accelerated as the emphasis (9)____(shift) from research to engineering. Fibers with losses (10) app____ the Rayleigh limit of 2 dB/km at a wavelength of 0.8μm were produced. By 1980 improvement in component performance, cost, and reliability led to major commitments on the part of telephone companies.
For a purifier changing to a gravity disc with smaller hole diameter will move the interface towards the（）.